عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study investigates both western and eastern styles developed in two Eastern districts (in Khorasan) as well as west and south of Iran during the 9th century Hijrah. Having presented a brief history of Nasta'liq, the research also examines the way that both Eastern and Western styles have emerged. It was hypothesized that there are differences in principles, performing techniques as well as aesthetics between both Eastern and Western styles of Nasta'liq. Moreover, the study aims to investigate the aesthetic differences between two styles of Nasta'liq and come up with accurate understanding of the performance techniques the 9th-hijrah-century calligraphers employed to enhance the quality of calligraphy in the present time.
Conducted through desk study of library resources, the paper offers a brief history of lives and works of calligraphers of two afore-mentioned styles, followed by surveying the features of their calligraphy. Afterwards, the similarities and differences of both styles in composition, writing and other features of both the styles.
The results indicated that there is a difference between principles and the way of performing both eastern and western styles of Nasta'liq that makes them distinctive. Moreover, oriental style pays more attention on promotion of Nasta'liq, thus making the style more lasting. It was also clarified that Abdolkarim Kharazmi was the first calligrapher who had access to water-resistant ink.
Nasta'liq is a style in calligraphy, which is well-balanced, well-proportioned and possesses a perfect composition because all the principles of calligraphy are entirely observed and well-established in Nasta'liq. Ease and speed of execution, legibility as well as beauty of the style caused Nasta'liq to spread widely.
As Agari quotes the famous expert in Iranian art, Arthur Pope says: "Nasta'liq, that is very soft, gentle and eye-catching, has emerged from the combination of the features of two styles, Naskh and Ta'liq, the first being well-balanced and thorough and the latter being impressive and predominant. This style prompted by Iranians demonstrates an advanced civilization and sophistication (Asgari, 1393:98)".
In this study, we have attempted to study the works of the calligraphers in the Western and Oriental way. Also, by finding out the differences and similarities of the two methods mentioned above, the ambiguities in this field will be eliminated and appropriate and appropriate answers to the following questions:
According to the authors, the invention of the calligraphy was one of the most important and greatest inventions of mankind and played a very important role in the emergence and development of human civilization. Although attention to fine writing is found in almost all cultures, calligraphy has become more important in the East and in Islamic countries and Iran. Calligraphy art in Iranian society has been well-liked and appreciated since ancient times, and for this reason, it has continued to preserve most of the written works of the past. Calligraphy in Iran has also received much attention from the ornamental aspect, and many of the crafts and crafts of Iranian artists have benefited from linear ornamentation.
In the early centuries of the emergence of the Nasta'liq line (9th century AH), two different styles appeared in different parts of Iran. One was the style of Ja'far Tabrizi and Azhar Tabrizi, which was later perfected by Sultan Ali Mashhadi and became common in the Khorasan and surrounding areas and became known as the 'eastern style'; And southern Iran became popular, and later, its children Abdul Karim and Abdul Rahim and their followers promoted it and called it the "Western way". There are different views on the differences between the two eastern and western styles of Nasta'liq in various books and texts, which the authors have summarized very broadly; there is a need for similarities and differences. To be more thoroughly examined and compared in these ways.
According to most writers of the Nasta'liq line in the late eighth and early ninth centuries (the Timurid era), the scene emerged. The status of the Nasta'liq line gradually evolved. Some historians believe that the Nasta'liq line was established by Mir Ali Tabrizi in the year 800 AH, while there are lines from Nastaliq whose history dates back to eight hundred AH. It can be concluded that Mir Ali Tabrizi is the first artist to bring the line under discussion and is the first artist to be known as Nasta'liq calligraphy.
Given the hidden and obvious angles of calligraphy left over from past artists, many things remain unknown. Since we are now living in a time when the pace of cultural change is depriving the new generation of its past cultural richness; to preserve the artistic history of this frontier requires the recognition of history and a conscious critique of the work of the past and the transfer of practical and creative artistic experiences and practices are felt.
Since finding obscure and previously unknown cultural artifacts is of great help in promoting and enhancing the quality of future art and culture, the purpose of the present study was to find out how to implement different types of Nasta'liq script in the ninth century AH. Some of the ambiguities about this and the use of information and results from the work of matching works to improve the quality of the Nasta'liq line in the present era.