عنوان مقاله [English]
Developing the concept of ‘otherness’ is intertwined with the concept of an authorstrated book; an authorstrated book falls into the category of applied art. Concepts are incorporeal, but they emerge in corporeal things; the emergence in authorstrated books takes place through the visual organization and creating semantic layers in a visual frame. What changes into meaning in an authorstrated book happens via created picture or visual organization and the process takes place as following; the illustration operation is performed like a process, but the addressee sees the result in an authorstrated book. As a result, semantic layers are read through the reader’s read in the possible world or in an authorstrated book and every authorstrated book is deemed as a new world which is an open window for the reader. Apart from sense of vision, as authorstrated book is also sensory-perceptual, it can engage other addressee’s senses. We are aimed at knowing the role of visual organization in the interaction process which is subject to sense and perception. Because in every discourse process, sensible factor serves as a go-between for inside and outside. The relation between subjects and interactional objects is a kind in which reception is done through senses, put the object in a situation where the object faces the otherness and put them on the way to meaning-making. In this relation, the modal states of body between subjects and objects are intertwined, via the presence of all senses beside each other and with each other and through this way, the subject’s phenomenological perception of the world is formed. To achieve this goal, we select an authorstrated book ‘The Red Tree’ by Shaun Tan on the grounds that based on of the aforementioned view, the subject in the book constantly faces sensory spaces which makes his perception encounter problems. This picture book includes two visual and written systems and discourse in this book in the visual text which provokes directly the subject’s sensitivity and when picture is accompanied by written form, the way of reading undergoes fluctuation and the reading process undergoes changes which depend on the subject or the addressee of the work. The question of the article is as following: on the basis of the semiotic and sensory-perceptual process, what factors is reading or meaning-making in visual system of an authorstrated book subject to? This article through bibliographical sources, documentary, descriptive and comparative method utilizes semiotic analysis. In this regard, discourse systems are focused especially a sensible discourse system in which the simultaneous presence of subject and object and sensory-perceptual process between them are highly important, for objects are considered physical reality and have the capability to have a meaning because of sensory features which are discovered by subjects. However, subjects are redefined on the basis of their place and ability; in this kind of discourse, we face an interactional system where the presence of each side causes feeling or reaction in both sides. Regardless of dynamic feature, this relation is predicated on interactional encounter, that is, what two sides feel at interaction. The way of presence or act of each side engaged in interaction causes a feeling in the other side leading to the reaction or the act of the actor. Having analyzed the aforementioned book, we realized that interactional or sensible method caused that the historical, mythological, imaginary and philosophical understanding of the addressee which accompany this discourse method and their perception is built on it.
Of which the addressee does not have any idea (the essence of combined and imaginary elements) can be developed as a part of phenomenological understanding through a sensory-perceptual process taking place via turning the pages of the book. The other point is that in the narrative structure of the book, some elements are fixed in all frames by the authorstrator in order for the subject to be able to keep the theme of the narration on the basis of it. For example, both the chief character (the little girl) who or the red leave acted and reacted in terms of the events. Having studied some frames of the book, we found out that this authorstrated book was aimed at revealing conscious processes and the authorstrator’s lived experience and also revealing reader-agent’s unconscious processes and the processes of empowering him; the authorstrator presents a powerful invitation through sensory-perceptual process and even provides an explanation in which the subject is involved in its meaning-making; The authorstrator aims to explain and through this way, he uses a variety of variants for meaning-making to create his own possible world and, in better words, the addressee can find mental signified variants through signs in the authorstrator’s illustration. The authorstrator does illustrate fragments through components such as breaking frames or different frames which create single narrative frames; frames which have the capability for being read in the structure of the book and which also allow the addressee to get started to read the book from each page as he/she wishes.
In fact, in this authorstrated book and based on the view or semiotic method and a sensory-perceptual process, the addressee’s sense is influenced by co-presence with the otherness who makes the addressee’s impression problematic. In the process of our analysis, on the basis of the interactional or emotional structure and regarding the point that authorstrated books are heavily predicated on senses, especially vision, it can be claimed that authorstratingdepends on components including, not thinking one-line, communal individuality, multiculturalism and decentralization. It can be said that: 1. An authorstratoror an illustration philosopher chooses one way from different discourses. He/She finds novel orders via illustrated discourses and discoursal and cultural change. 2. Identity and individuality are the subject’s other poles which discourse situations provide it (the subject) with. Semantic components in authorstrated books show that how the subject was divided into pieces and was decentralized; the subject had a variety of identities depending on discourses which the subject belonged to. The subject is indeterminate. However, there is a likelihood that the subject develops identities in a special situation in which the object cracks and is never completely present. As a result, its identity is fluid. 4. Semantic components showed that in such an illustration, one “ego” developed which was not “ego”-oriented anymore; this novel “ego” can escape the grip of being solely an subject and in doing so, is able to create interaction, and become meaningful by the presence of the other one. 5. The study of the semantic components showed that the subject or the addressee gained a new experience every time he/she read or saw the book and this new experience means new identity development and a new discourse.
In “The Red Tree”, an authorstrated book, surrealistic aspects are seen more than other aspects. Also, a host of techniques in the illustration performance are deconstructive: the existence of these components in illustration or text aesthetics cannot be assessed without taking thought, ideology, and social and cultural issues into consideration and representation in illustration is not an exception and it can be expressed through every style or visual expression, especially Realism, Surrealism and Symbolism. 2. We concluded that the authorstrator’s encounter with authorstrated books as an illustration philosopher in the realm of the illustration language took place with visual sensitivity proving that the authorstrator escaped the flaws rooting from certain isms and in this way, the authorstrator considered no limits to express and utilize methods. 3. We concluded that in the study of an artwork, (authorstrating) there was nothing as a visual text which was absolutely controlled by the authorstrator and his/her govern came to an end somewhere (idea or performance) in the visual text.
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Tan, Sh. (2011). The Accidental Graphic Novelist. BookBird. 49(4), 1-9.