عنوان مقاله [English]
Education has always been one of the main priorities in the sustainable development infrastructure in the world, and the efficiency of educational content in training knowledgeable people from those who are under training is always one of the ultimate goals of any educational system. The current priorities also exist in Iran, which are mentioned in the above documents. One of the important factors that can play a key role in cultural development and its continuity, is research in the field of testing and optimizing education. In today's world, efficient higher education is considered as the most basic and most important pillar of economic, social and cultural development, and no change in society will take place without paying special attention to the role of the education system. With the rapid development of work and life skills in the contemporary conditions, the education system of any society needs to be improved quantitatively and qualitatively.
One of the important goals and tasks of the higher education system in any country is to train knowledgeable and efficient manpower that is required by society. Universities today must train graduates with the skills to be able to take important roles in this age of learning. Curriculum design and its revision is a purposeful, progressive, and systematic process for making positive improvements in the higher education system. Accordingly, having a suitable and working curriculum has become a valuable national asset;
Curricula, as one of the most important elements of higher education, have a special place in the efficiency and effectiveness of education and, consequently, the development of capable graduates, because it is according to this program that countries can achieve their human assets. As a standard, to optimize the implemented curriculum, it is necessary to go through three coherent steps. The first is the assessment and pathology of the current state of the program. The second stage is to draw the desired situation from a professional perspective, and the final stage is to provide strategic suggestions for strengthening and optimization of the plan and curriculum. In this research, an attempt was made to analyze the status of the bachelor's degree in Islamic art with an emphasis on the entrepreneurial perspective.
The components of entrepreneurship education for development are a fundamental issue that has been considered and studied by countries around the world and according to this consideration, it has been revealed that the components of entrepreneurship are often acquired and not hereditary. Entrepreneurial features and characteristics should be used to improve the economic, political and cultural arenas, which provide various factors for this cultural context for individuals. One of the most important aspects of this academic context is close and careful analysis of this curriculum’s efficiency. Evidently this research needs to select one specific field with enough research potential.
Islamic art is selected, due to its deep connection with the history, civilization, culture, and identity of Islamic Iran, has a distinct place. Currently, this field is active for both undergraduate and graduate levels. The bachelor's degree in Islamic art has been established since 2005 to educate committed, capable and productive people to enhance the quality and quantity of original Iranian-Islamic art and culture. This field has several potential capacities in line with knowledge, insight, and skills. Consequently, it can be considered as a principal discipline in cultural, economic, and social development. In spite of the countless advantages of this field and regarding the fact that more than a decade has passed since its establishment, less research has been conducted methodically and accurately to assess the effectiveness of the curriculum and the subject of Islamic art and provide an effective model in line with its optimization. Then, it is essential to assess the effectiveness of the curriculum and the subject of this field regarding cultural, economic, and social developments at the national and international levels and to provide scientific and executive solutions. The current study aims to evaluate and optimize a bachelor's degree in Islamic art from an entrepreneurial perspective. The main research question consists of two parts. First, at what level are the four pillars of purpose, content, teaching, and evaluation are assessed in Islamic art with an emphasis on the components of entrepreneurship? Via the capacities in the field of entrepreneurship and interdisciplinary perspective, what is the structure and components of the optimization model of the curriculum and Islamic art?
In terms of purpose, the current study is of developmental studies. This means that, with an emphasis on entrepreneurship, the results can be used for the efficient development of higher education in Islamic art. Methodologically, regarding the interdisciplinary and multidimensional nature of the research, a mixture of descriptive-survey and descriptive-analytical methods have been used to attain the goals and answer the questions. The most significant tool for collecting information in the field was the questionnaire. In this paper, a researcher-made questionnaire has been used to better fit the subject. Construct and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the Delphi method and its reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha. Questionnaire items were compiled via Delphi method and experts, a meta-analysis of valid researches and qualitative findings as well as analysis of the components of appropriate standard questionnaires. According to the headings, the questionnaire is based on four main sections, including purpose, content, teaching, and evaluation. The research experts’ community includes university professors, experts with a first and second degree in art and other specialists in the field of Islamic art education and higher art education, and the field of educational sciences with a focus on curriculum and entrepreneurship, economics and entrepreneurship education. The leading method of questionnaire results analysis was done using descriptive statistical methods including mean, median, and standard deviation. The findings of the documentary analysis, meta-analysis, and content analysis have been qualitatively analyzed. A summary of the research findings reveals that among the four pillars of purpose, content, teaching, and evaluation, the content dimension with an average of 53 had the lowest score and the teaching dimension with an average of 69 had the highest score compared to other sections. It should be mentioned that according to the standard questionnaire and experts’ opinions, more than 66% of the items in the purpose section, more than 90% of the content items, more than 45% of the teaching items, and finally more than 60% of the evaluation items are evaluated below average (weak). Consequently, while approving the research hypothesis, the findings emphasize the need to optimize the subject of Islamic art with an emphasis on entrepreneurship and interdisciplinary perspective. The suggested optimal model with nine main elements including necessity, purpose, content, comprehensive, learning process, teaching, learning environment, teacher, and evaluation was developed and accepted by experts. The leading features in the development of the components include: increasing interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary viewpoints, developing the entrepreneurial context in Islamic arts, consolidating and improving the university's relationship with other educational centers, using new educational contexts, benefiting from successful domestic and foreign experiences, and other components with an emphasis on the promotion of effectiveness and optimization of the curriculum and the rubric of Islamic art. The stated model, if established and implemented, can be fruitful in optimizing the Islamic art education system based on the continuous evaluation system.
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