عنوان مقاله [English]
Culture–which is considered as social actions- is comprised of a set of behaviors that generate meanings or transform other meanings, and is always alive, dynamic, and changing. Image is known as the shared language relating to the culture and has long had a fundamental role in establishing a connection between humans and transferring information. This has expanded even further today due to the global era and expansion of information, resulting in changes and transformation made by media in graphic arts, which has had both positive and negative results. Images convey different symbols, meanings and influence one another in today's communications. The connections formed by images provide sources to maintain the interaction between the producer and audience of the image. Among the positive results of this procedure, one could mention the generation of global standard models, concept homogenization, and image heterogeneity which results in visual traditions in the works of art. many images are shaping that have shaped and become tangible in the minds of artists by media, the understanding of which would not lead the audience toward knowledge of humans and their culture in any specific period. The prominent presence of the media and image transmission could be considered a replacement for the distinct and ancient culture of each region in many cases, ideas and thoughts can be observed in the works of art which are not reflections of the current situation of the artist's society but rather a reflection of the images delivered at a global level by media; in fact, the experience of access to image sources contains information that is being delivered homogenously and on a broad expanse. Image and graphic arts that interact with the audience and one another at the international level can result in the cognition of the current situation of the present era’s humans. These images convey concepts relating to individual and collective culture and mentalities of a specific place or culture in many cases, while sometimes images are created that illustrate different and contradictory viewpoints for viewers and analysts.
This study is a qualitative survey in nature, employs a descriptive-analytic method, uses desk research to collect data by referring to library documentation, and seeks to answer the question of whether images and their transmission by media can provide us with cognition of the contemporary human and his culture. Meanwhile, the study addresses the pathology of the generated images by reliance on Hans Belting's image anthropology approach as well as the position and aspects of the image. According to Belting, visual arts are made up of the interaction between the three components including object, image, and media, the result of which is individual and collective cognition in both mental and external forms. Hans Belting’s theory was proposed in German philosophical anthropology and inconsistency with Kant's viewpoints seeking to study images regardless of the prevailing historical constraints. Besides, he believes that the study of the image relies on an anthropologic approach since every image will eventually need an anthropological interpretation. In his anthropological study of the image, Belting considers the dual symbolic content of the image and believes the image to be an external as well as an external phenomenon. This dual characteristic of the image reveals the foundation of his anthropological viewpoint. Images are created based on both individual and collective cognition. Belting's viewpoint regarding the image could be summarized in the statement that he considers no distinction between mental and external images and considers such a distinction as the result of a false duality. Both these images are interacting so that the external images are under the influence and control of mental images and are generated based on the individual and collective imagination. Besides, images are constantly being exposed to new interpretations the reason for which is the use of a new medium.
According to David Hockney’s viewpoint regarding image indicating that each image is a narrative of looking, the formation of similar works of art could be considered as the result of similar perceptions and the power of image in media. According to this, narratives are no more formed by the structure of an individual viewpoint and unique mentality but are being generated by the viewpoints being exchanged between transient participants. Each image can have an internal and external aspect that the artist uses to create the work; In the meantime, due to the dominance and power of the media, many mindsets created collectively and individually will not give the necessary knowledge and awareness of the desired reality; Because many images are made by the artist as a slice of reality and the artist has the option to choose by presenting the existing reality. Sometimes the artist destroys a familiar experience to create a contradiction with existing works; Destroying that is to establish values in the mind of the audience. Visual arts are an intermediary between what is engraved in previous works and what is valuable and sought after by the audience. These values are often presented at international events by art institutions. Thus, in many cases, artists consider the social reality to be recorded, which has the desired value by the audience of that particular work, and their repetition and continuity cause visual signs over time; Thus, there are repetitive faces that have been transferred to mindsets only through the power of the image in the media. conceptions are formed by faces; without content representation.
So that sometimes it seems like distorting the content or changing it. In some cases, the artist represents what is displayed, even though the representation is only a slice of the desired reality, and to be affected by them, one must also examine the hidden content aspects of the subject to be able to Communicate cultural and intended concepts more clearly. The presence and display of images that originate from reality are directly related to the culture of a particular region that is interacting and transmitting due to the expansion of communication; This introduces many concepts and images in world culture.
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