عنوان مقاله [English]
Handicrafts represent culture and economics of a society and are produced to meet basic human needs and livelihood. These types of artworks are inspired by the myths, desires, ideals, the surrounding nature and the history and literature of each nation. The most important aspects of Turkmen lives are their handicrafts. The Turkmens, considering their livestock and animal husbandry occupations, are skilled in the production of various types of silk and wool yarns and their dyeing from natural materials. Turkmen handicrafts represent the ritual, doctrinal, religious, mythological and belief aspects of weavers that meet their living needs. Each role contains various codes and meanings borrowed from ethnic beliefs or from other cultures. The authors seek to answer the question of how the patterns and colors in the Turkmen arrays are explained from Malinowski's functionalist perspective in order to examine the identifying elements in the symbolic arrays in the motifs used in the Turkmen underlayment. Based on this, some of the famous Turkmen designs called Namazliq, Namazliq Kaaba and Asmaliq are examined and their function and place in the culture of these people are analyzed. Abstract colors and motifs are assumed to being originated from the religious beliefs, rituals, culture and ecology of the Turkmen and from a social perspective, have a direct relationship with the characteristics of ethnic identity. Arrays in Turkmen carpets are representative of an abstracted nature and have a symbolic and decorative function. According to Malinowski's theory, every part of society has an effective function in relation to the whole society, and its job is to meet human needs. For most contemporary semiotics, direct and implicit implications include the use of cryptography. Codes are dynamic systems that change over time and are therefore as historical as they are socio-cultural. Encryption is the process by which contracts are established. Opinions and emotions must be examined, along with all other aspects of culture, both functionally and formally. According to Malinowski, the function of culture is to meet human needs. The three human needs include: 1- Basic needs: biological needs such as nutrition and reproduction; 2- Derivative needs: needs arising from culture such as education and laws and 3- Spiritual cohesive needs: such as religion, ideology and worldview. The definition of function from Malinowski's point of view is the fulfillment of a need by an action. In his view, functionalism is intertwined with culture, and culture is a system in which all the elements are intertwined. Needs go back to human biological existence and share some needs between humans and animals (basic needs such as nutrition and reproduction). According to Malinowski, the satisfaction of primary needs by cultural requirements is called secondary needs. Secondary needs are, the need to create social, economic, and political institutions that are formed to meet basic needs. Alti Bazaar motifs in Turkmen handicrafts indicate this issue. Finally, a third group of needs occurs in the form of language, ethics, religion and communication. Malinowski's other analysis is about myths. He considers any kind of belief system that is a cultural response to basic needs as a culture that looks to the past (belief in the original lost paradise) and the future (belief in the end). On the other hand, there is a tribal system among the Turkmen people, and each tribe has its own mark, which has no meaning in other tribes. Turkmens have designs to avoid danger and to attract goodness and blessings. Daghdan is seen in Turkmen handicrafts to ward off danger and create peace and the role of Ashiq for benevolence. According to Malinowski's point of view, the understanding of beliefs and myths must take place in the cultural context of society. Religion has four dimensions in his views: 1- Maintaining social stability; 2- The nature of evacuation from social pressures and tensions; 3- Increasing the capacity of human beings from problems and 4- The specific field that defines religion and science separately. He considers the secret of religion to be its functional and intrinsic value. Most floral motifs, with broken lines and general themes of plants, animals, humans, nature and inanimate nature. The designs of the underlayment studied in the article are as follows: 1- Namazliq with flower design which has symbolic and mythical aspects. The prayer beads are woven in different shapes and the motifs of ram's horn, tree of life, Sarichians, flower, Kaaba and ram are seen in various compositions on them. 2- The Kaaba of Namazliq is depicted with motifs reminiscent of the house of the Kaaba with the feathered textures of kilims and the motifs of the Kaaba of Ghe'ri, Alaja, Alem Ghe'ri, Avingh Ghae'ri, lampstand, ram's horn, flying Grus and winged mythical creatures. 3- Asmaliq with plant and animal motifs seeks goodness, blessing and fertility.
In this article, in addition to re-reading the meanings of the motifs used in some of the Turkmen underlayment, those motifs were also examined from the perspective of Malinowski's functionalism. The theory of positive functionalism was expressed in Turkmen society in line with their culture. Explaining the hierarchy of human needs from Malinowski's perspective, examples of the emergence of visual elements derived from the needs of the Turkmen were extracted. Accordingly, in the designs of Namazliq, Kaaba of Namazliq and Asmaliq Turkmen, the function and position of the motifs taken from the culture of this people were analyzed. The pivotal role of these forms in conveying the central meanings and values of Turkmen culture according to their iconic symbols and their representation was recounted in an abstract way. Also, the decorative function of the designs was seen in the carpets. All the findings are in accordance with Malinowski's views, who consider the motifs in any society to have a specific function and their goal as the excellence of society. Assuming that these motifs are derived from the religious, ritualistic, cultural and ecological beliefs of Turkmen and a sign of their ethnic identity, their representation in the rituals, customs and its place in meeting basic needs and changing the direction of meeting derivational needs and ultimately spiritual cohesion of the Turkmen people were investigated. The important thing was the status of religion and ethnic identity, the concepts of which are reflected in the motifs of the carpets. The research method is historical and content analysis of the designs has been done by collecting documents and visiting the Carpet Museum of Tehran. The results indicate that these forms play a key role in conveying the central meanings and values of culture and are often iconic symbols and have become abstract over time. Also, the functional and decorative function of the designs can be seen in them. According to Malinowski, motifs in any society have a specific function and their goal is the excellence of society. These motifs originate from the culture of the society and should be analyzed in their own cultural context.