عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the most important historical periods in which Iranian art and architecture grow significantly is the Safavid era. The Safavids were Iranian and Shiite descendants who ruled Iran for 221 years. With the officialization of Shiite religion, the presence of scholars and their training increased during this period and multiple writings in all kinds of sciences, especially religious were carried out, and in general, a cultural, religious movement began. In this era, the topics such as jurisprudence, hadith, mystical studies, etc… achieved a high position in the history of Shiite sciences and with the support of the rulers, the official Shiite religion was able to establish a deep connection with the culture and society of Iran. Therefore, the most important practical and historical role of religion in the Safavid era should be considered in the cultural context. Also, in this era, a glance was taken to the ancient architecture of Iran and many elements and spaces of architecture and urban planning were performed with different structures and functions appropriate to the political, cultural and economic conditions. Repairing of the tombs and sacred monuments in the pilgrimage cities also received special attention during this period. Astan-e-Quds Razavi complex was the most important building during the Safavid period that grew and developed and formed thanks to the presence of Hazrat Samen Al-Hajj Ali Ibn Musa Reza (AS) in the holy city of Mashhad which is the most important building of the Islamic era in Iran at the moment.
Razavi Holy Shrine is the most magnificent shrine in which the artists have tried to commemorate unique artworks for decades. The officialization of the Shiite religion in the Safavid era and the greater interest and attention of kings and Shiites in this period led to the emergence of many monuments, artworks and decorations in Astan Quds Razavi collection. Some ornaments such as Mogharnas and tiling were used more widely with some changes, and some others, such as damascene and mirror work have been used not only in Razavi shrine but also in other shrines of the Imams (as) in Iraq. Finding the reason for survival, growth and continuation of these arts in other eras is one of the points that the present study seeks to achieve. The assumption is that behind the appearance of these ornaments there are beliefs and deep mystical concepts due to which the ornaments of this epoch have been able to survive and transfer to later periods as a pattern. Therefore, in this article, the Safavid ornaments of Razavi holy shrine will be investigated, and we will try to analyze and explain the hidden concepts of the artworks in this holy place and thus to discover a convincing answer to the question that: “what was the concept of ornaments in Razavi Holy Shrine and the reasons for their use in the Safavid period?” This article is qualitative and has been done by using written sources and field research and its method is descriptive-historical analysis. The method of data collection and content analysis is inductive.
The achievements show that mystical concepts hidden in ornaments of the Safavid era, are completely in line with the sanctity of this sacred space and also with Shiite beliefs and the idea of the unity of existence (because they are symbolic manifestations of light), and in addition to beautifying and stylization of space they are manifesting the glory of eternity. This indicates the connection of Safavid artists with the deepest mystical concepts that have been done through journeying behavior. In fact, mysticism and Sufism have found their way through the manliness teachings of the religion, with practical conduct on the heart and souls of craftsmen and artists of this era and not only have influenced their behavior and deeds but also manifested in their industry and art. This is why that can be said that the intellectual foundation of Safavid Muslim architects and artists has been always in the direction of growth and excellence of Islamic art and architecture that is quite evident by examining the artworks of this era in a valuable place such as the Razavi holy shrine. Familiarity with mystical teachings results in works that are full of heart remembrance of the artist; therefore, what the artist creates is a consequence of being close to the creator of the universe and it is an imitation of the universe that accurately represents the order in the creation system through geometry. Safavid artist tries to bring his works to the forefront in the most beautiful way that is possible, and just like alchemy manifests the objects from the heart of darkness to the light. This is how that we see the meaning of light and unity reflected from the face of tiles, Mogharnas, mirrors and gold. This concept is manifested not only in the technique of ornaments, but also in the heart of their designs. Geometric abstract patterns, patterns of Knots and mandalas on the walls and ceilings covered with the mentioned ornaments are all symbolic representations of light. As stated, attention to the light and its importance in Islamic art, is taken from the holy verse (light: 35) the God is the light (the reason of existence) of heaven and earth. From this verse that light is considered to be the manifestation and symbol of existence; as if there is no light, the universe will not manifest. This is why the Safavid architects, artists and craftsmen have tried to make all the decorative elements to evoke light somehow. Therefore, it is from this period that mirror work and most importantly gilding on the dome and minaret of the Hazrat Reza holly shrine occur and it becomes heresy that these two ornaments will be used in abundance in the next periods and also in Razavi holy shrine. The golden glow of the dome and minarets radiates light showing the manifestation of the light of the essence of the Supreme Truth, then it is associated with the existence of the Infallible Imams and their heavenly place; so, the entrance porch to the lighted holly shrine, where the holy shrine of Shamsan Shamsa of the world is located, is also gilded.
As mentioned, in the later periods, the damascene of the Atiq yard, the second minaret and the Saqakhaneh have been repaired many times. In different places of Razavi holy shrine, gilding and mirror work can be seen in abundance, which belongs to other eras. In addition to that study of the damascene history of the domes belonging to other Imams shrines also shows the importance and influence of Safavid art on later periods until now and it is an emphasis on the heresy of gold leafing the dome of the shrine of the Imams from the Safavid era; although it is possible that the meaning of ornaments and its artistic value had never been understood in this period. Studies show that from the Safavid era that the official Shiite Imamiya religion becomes official, attention to holy places leads to the development, construction and expansion of their decorations, which certainly shows the importance and appreciation for these places and the sanctities and beliefs of the Shiites.
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