عنوان مقاله [English]
Intertextuality is the shaping of a text's meaning by another text. It is the interconnection between similar or related works of literature that reflect and influence an audience's interpretation of the text. Intertextuality is the relation between texts that are inflicted through quotations and allusion, Intertextual. It is a literary device that creates an 'interrelationship between texts' and generates related understanding in separate works. These references are made to influence the reader and add layers of depth to a text, based on the readers' prior knowledge and understanding. The intertextual structure in turn depends on the perceptual structure of the audience. It is also a literary discourse strategy utilized by writers in novels, poetry, theatre and even in non-written texts (such as performances and digital media). Transtextuality is defined as the "textual transcendence of the text". According to Gérard Genette transtextuality is "all that sets the text in a relationship, whether obvious or concealed, with other texts" and it "covers all aspects of a particular text”. Genette described transtextuality as a "more inclusive term" than Intertextuality. The theory of Intertextuality can also be introduced in visual studies. In these cases, the study focuses on identifying the relationships between a visual text and its previous texts. In this study, the texts that have been analyzed are contemporary Iranian typography that has been compared with Islamic typography (Calligraphy) in terms of intertextuality.
Calligraphy and inscriptions had a special spiritual status in the Islamic period and became a ground for accepting meaningful symbols and signs. These works include two main components of form and meaning. Symbolic features are part of the meaning of these works that affect the shape and form of the type. The most famous signs and symbols are plant signs. In addition to the plant motifs of the background, the type is full of motifs and symbols.
At the beginning and end of the type, there are plant motifs, the stems are twisted, the weaves and knots of stems can be increased and expanded. Plant symbols that symbolize growth, life was intertwined with types. In general classification of plant symbols, geometric symbols, human and animal symbols can be expressed as the main meaningful elements in association with type or combination with type in Islamic works. In these works, the type is combined with a symbol, such as plant motifs that are added to the end of the type or the design of a bird in the name of God (Morghe Besme Allah), as well as fidelity to the style of Islamic Animalgraphy, which creates a kind of metaphorical relationship in the work. Islamic art includes a set of coherent and diverse written symbols that can be referred to as traditional Persian typography. Islamic calligraphy has undeniable effects on the type design in contemporary Iranian graphics. This study investigates the relationship between symbol and type in the arts of the Islamic period and analyzes the continuity of these correlations in contemporary Iranian logotypes and typography. The aim of this research is expressing the relationship of symbol and type design in modern Iranian typography by emphasizing the Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic relations of symbol and type in the Islamic calligraphy by adopting an intertextual approach. The purpose of this research is to express one of the co-occurring channels of symbol and type in modern Iranian typography with emphasis on the accompaniment and substitution of symbol and writing in Islamic calligraphy by adopting an intertextual approach. The present study seeks to answer the question of how symbolic signs related to type design have appeared in the works of the Islamic period and how the appearance of the symbol in contemporary Iranian typography has to do with its Islamic context.
This study is descriptive-analytical in terms of methodology. The data collection method is based on library review (i.e., note-taking and image analysis) and data analysis was done qualitatively. The statistical population is the study of calligraphy and typography of the Islamic period and contemporary logotypes and posters. 13 examples of traditional Islamic calligraphy (in inscriptions, pottery and Islamic calligraphy) are compared with 14 examples of typography in logos and posters in which plant, animal and geometric symbols are combined with the text. The sampling method is selective. The researcher's opinion is influential in the selection of samples. Statistical examples of this population have been purposefully considered with the criterion that the relationship between symbol and text in them are clearly recognizable and comparable. Some cases can be stated as the background of the present research. These cases have studied calligraphy in Iranian art as well as typography independently, but The effect of calligraphy and typography of the Islamic period on contemporary Iranian typography with a focus on the continuity of symbols and their relationship to writing has not been discussed. The relationship between these two areas with the evolutionist and intertextual approach has not been done so far. Comparison of similar typographic forms in the field of graphics with Islamic typography through intertextual relations and the evolution of some symbols in contemporary writing has not been expressed. The emergence of cultural and artistic identity as a message in the semantic layers of logos and posters has not been considered. The results of this study suggest that in the inscription and calligraphy of the Islamic period and contemporary typography, Relation is diachronic, Symbol placed in the background of the text or Continuously with text, which evokes the Syntagmatic relations. In some cases, the symbol is combined with the text, which can be considered a Paradigmatic relation between the symbol and the type. The most famous symbol is the plant motifs, the symbol of life. Then geometric abstract symbols are combined with type that is associated with good concepts. In contemporary Iranian graphics, examples of Persian logotypes and typography evoke the accompaniment of a symbol and a type, like its Islamic prefaces, and show the intertextual relationship of its Pastiche type. In some cases, visual symbols are combined with written signs in contemporary typography, and there is a Paradigmatic relation between the symbol and the type, There is also intertextuality of the pastiche type. In a way that traditional and cultural identity, along with organizational identity and product type, have influenced the form of type. Pastiche means imitation in form and change in content. Similarity to the original preface to the creation of new works through transtextual relations can be seen in this type of intertextuality. This similarity and imitation do not mean that there are exactly two similar works. Therefore, a structural pattern, symbol-type Syntagmatic relations and symbol-type Paradigmatic relations are common in Islamic traditional typography and contemporary typography. Each text has unique visual features and semantic structure. The implicit meaning of originality and identity and reference to the original Iranian Islamic culture is one of the main semantic layers of contemporary Iranian typography in which the pattern of Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic relations of symbol and text can be analyzed. These arrangements in contemporary Iranian typography, in addition to creating a sense of cultural-national identity, bring a sense of nostalgia to the audience. What is certain is that writing is a ground for accepting symbols in the oldest and newest Iranian arts.
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